Research

If you are aware of additional published research that should be shared on this site, please connect with the “Page Contact” noted at the bottom of the page.

Center for Online Innovation in Learning (COIL)
COIL provides a hub to engage the University’s extensive research enterprise to improve online learning at and beyond Penn State.

Changing Course: Ten Years of Tracking Online Education in the U.S., 2012
The tenth annual survey, with responses from over 2,800 academic leaders, is a collaborative effort between the Babson Survey Research Group and the College Board.

Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies (2009)  (pdf)
A systematic search of the research literature from 1996 through July 2008 identified more than a thousand empirical studies of online learning. Analysts screened these studies to find those that a) contrasted an online to a face-to-face condition, b) measured student learning outcomes, c) used a rigorous research design, and d) provided adequate information to calculate an effect size. As a result of this screening, 51 independent effects were identified that could be subjected to meta-analysis. [Word document available at this link finalreport]

Going the Distance with Online Education
Larreamendy-Joerns, J., & Leinhardt, G. (2006). Going the distance with online education. Review of Educational Research, 76(4), 567-605.

Horizon Report > 2013 Higher Education Edition
This report is a collaborative effort between the NMC and the EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative (ELI), an EDUCAUSE Program. It describes annual findings from the NMC Horizon Project, a decade-long research project designed to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have an impact on learning, teaching, and creative inquiry in higher education. Six emerging technologies are identified across three adoption horizons over the next one to five years, as well as key trends and challenges expected to continue over the same period, giving campus leaders and practitioners a valuable guide for strategic technology planning.

How Does Distance Education Compare with Classroom Instruction? A Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Literature
Bernard, R. M., Abrami, P. C., Lou, Y., Borokhovski, E., Wade, A., Wozney, L., Wallet, P. A., Fiset, M., & Huang, B. (2004). How Does Distance Education Compare With Classroom Instruction? A Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Literature. Review of Educational Research, 74(3), 379-439.

Online courses
Maki, R. H., & Maki, W. S. (2007). Online courses. In F. T. Durso (Ed.), Handbook of Applied Cognition: Second Edition, (pp. 527-552). New York: Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Available online through Penn State Libraries, DOI: 10.1002/9780470713181.ch20. The chapter answers four questions related to learning and behavior in online classes as compared to face-to-face classes: How much is learned? What influences study behaviors? Are students more or less satisfied? Which individual differences modulate learning and satisfaction?

Staying the Course: Online Education in the United States, 2008
Report on the status of online learning in higher education.

Teaching Courses Online: A Review of the Research
Tallent-Runnels, M. K., Thomas, J. A., Lan, W. Y., Cooper, S., Ahern, T. C., Shaw, S. M., & Liu, X. (2006). Teaching courses online: A review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 76(1), 93-135.

The Myth about Online Course Development: “A Faculty Member Can Individually Develop and Deliver an Effective Online Course.”
Oblinger, D. G. & Hawkins, B. L. (2006). The myth about online course development. Educause Review, 41(1), 14-15.

Twenty Years of Research on the Academic Performance Differences between Traditional and Distance Learning: Summative Meta-Analysis and Trend Examination

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